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In general, altcoins function similarly to the original Bitcoin. You can send money from your digital wallet to another user's wallet using a private key. The transactions are permanently and publicly recorded on a blockchain or recording ledger, so they can't be changed or rejected after the fact.
The blockchain is protected by mathematical proofs that confirm block-level transactions.
Some cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, rely on "proof-of-work," a time-consuming and energy-inefficient method of verifying transactions.
Proof-of-stake is required by several altcoins, such as Ethereum. Proof-of-stake verifies transactions with the help of other accounts on the network, making it simple to use.